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Aspecte Teoretice - Articolul (3) Materia Dreptul Muncii

(Vezi Articolul (2) - Materia Dreptului Muncii)

Note:

1 Publicat in Buletinul Oficial nr. 140 din 1 decembrie 1972.
2 Art. 186 din vechiul Cod al muncii dispunea ca "Prevederile prezentului Cod al muncii nu se aplica raporturilor in care prestarea unei munci se face pe baza unui contract de drept civil."
3 Alexandru Atanasiu, Luminita Dima, Regimul juridic al raporturilor de munca in reglementarea noului Cod al muncii, P.R., 2/2003. VII. 242.
4 Ion Traian Stefanescu, Dreptul Muncii, Ed. Lumina Lex, Bucuresti, 2000, p. 263
5 Publicata in Monitorul Oficial nr. 166 din 31 iulie 1995.
6 Publicat in Monitorul Oficial nr. 355 din 27 iulie 1999.


7 Publicat in Monitorul Oficial nr. 560 din 17 noiembrie 1999.
8 Publicat in Monitorul Oficial nr. 653 din 31 decembrie 1999.
9 Art. 24 din Legea nr. 130/1999 dispune "La data intrarii in vigoare a prezentei legi se abroga Legea nr. 83/1995 privind unele masuri de protectie a persoanelor incadrate in munca, publicata in Monitorul Oficial al Romaniei, Partea I, nr. 166 din 31 iulie 1995".
10 Publicata in Monitorul Oficial nr. 72 din 5 februarie 2003.
11  Directiva Consiliului nr. 99/70/C. E. - privind Acordul cadru asupra contractelor de munca pe durata determinata; Directiva nr. 91/383/C. E. E. din 25. 06. 1991 privind suplimentarea masurilor de incurajare a imbunatatirilor in domeniul sanatatii si securitatii la locul de munca al lucratorilor incadrati pe durata temporara sau determinata; Directiva Consiliului 97/81/C. E. privind Acordul cadru asupra muncii prestate cu fractiune de norma; Directiva nr. 80/987/C.E.E. din 1980 privind amortizarea legislatiilor statelor membre referitoare la protectia salariatilor in cazul insolvabilitatii patronului; Directiva nr. 91/533/C. E. E. din 1991 referitoare la obligatia patronului de a informa lucratorul asupra conditiilor aplicabile contractului sau raportului de munca.  De asemenea s-a tinut seama de cele mai importante conventii ale Organizatiei Internationale a Muncii: Conventia nr. 81/1947 privind inspetia muncii; Conventia nr. 87/1948 privind libertatea de asociere si protectia dreptului de asociere; Conventia 98/1949 privind dreptul de organizare si negociere colectiva; Conventia nr. 131/1970 privind stabilirea salariului minim, Conventia nr. 168/1988 privind promovarea ocuparii si protectia impotriva somajului.  La elaborarea actualului Cod al muncii, s-a tinut seama si de Carta Sociala Europeana revizuita, adoptata la Strasbourg la 3 mai 1996 si ratificata prin Legea nr. 74/1999.
12 Art. 1 din noul Cod al muncii prevede ca "prezentul cod reglementeaza totalitatea raporturilor individuale si colective de munca, modul in care se efectueaza controlul aplicarii reglementarilor din domeniul raporturilor de munca, precum si jurisdictia muncii".
13 Ion Traian Stefanescu, op. cit. p. 17.
14 In fapt, acest minister nici nu si-a motivat pozitia cu privire la abrogarea conventiilor civile. 
15 Pentru o opinie contrara a se vedea Alexandru Atanasiu, Luminita Dima, op. cit. p. 242.
16 Publicata in Monitorul Oficial nr. 139 din 31 martie 2000.
17 Art. 61 alin. (3) din Legea nr. 24/2000 dispune ca "in vederea abrogarii, dispozitiile normative vizate trebuie determinate expres, incepand cu legile si apoi cu celelalte acte normative, prin mentionarea tuturor datelor de identificare a acestora". Art. 63 alin. (3) din Legea nr. 24/2000 dispune ca "Evenimentele legislative implicite nu sunt recunoscute in cazul actelor normative speciale ale caror dispozitii nu pot fi socotite modificate, completate sau abrogate nici prin reglementarea generala a materiei, decat daca acest lucru este exprimat expres."
18 In conformitate cu prevederile Legii nr. 24/2000, din momentul intrarii in vigoare a prezentei legi, abrogarea nu poate fi decat expresa. 
19 Francisc Deak, Tratat de Drept Civil, Contracte Speciale, Ed. Actami, Bucuresti, 1998, p. 252; R. Sanilevici, Drept Civil, Contracte, Universitatea "Al. I. Cuza" Iasi, 1982, p. 164; I. Zinveliu, Contractele civile, instrumente de satisfacere a intereselor cetatenilor, Ed. Dacia, Cluj-Napoca, 1978, p. 297; V. Ursa, Necesitatea unei reglementari juridice unitare a prestarilor de servicii catre populatie, Ed. St. si Encicl., Bucuresti, 1982. 
20 Art. 1413 alin. 5 C. civ. dispune ca "antrepriza, luarea savarsirii unei lucrari drept un pret determinat, cand materialul se da de acela pentru care se executa o lucrare". 
21 Virgil I. Campianu, Dreptul Muncii, Ed. Didactica si Pedagogica, Bucuresti, 1967, p. 100; Francisc Deak, op. cit. p. 251.
22 Francisc Deak, op. cit. p. 252;
23 T. S. col. civ., dec. nr. 912/1954 in CD, 1952-1954, vol. I, p. 168-171. 
24 Virgil I. Campianu, op. cit. p. 100.
25 Ion Traian Stefanescu, op. cit. p. 276.
26 Prin sistem de drept, in teoria dreptului, se intelege acea "dimensiune inalienabila a existentei umane - parte componenta a realitatii sociale  (sistemul juridic), in ce priveste legislatia (sistemul legislatiei), dar si in privinta organizarii dreptului ca fenomen normativ, pe ramuri si institutii (sistemul dreptului)", a se vedea Nicolae Popa, Teoria Generala a Dreptului, Editura Actami, Bucuresti, 1996, p. 242.
27 Potrivit Competition Policy and Liberal Professions in European Union "The liberal professions can generally be defined as occupations requiring special training in the arts or sciences. These include lawyers, notaries, accountants, architects, engineers and pharmacists. Across the EU, the professions are subject to regulations such as fee scales, advertising restrictions, exclusive rights and rules prohibiting inter-professional co-operation." 
28 Pentru o privire comparata a profesiilor liberale a se vedea Studiul realizat de Institutul de Studii Avansate de la Viena, realizat la solicitarea Comisiei Uniunii Europene, http://europa.eu.int/comm/competition/liberalization/conference/prof_services_his .
29 V.D. Zlatescu, Mari Sisteme de drept in lumea contemporana, Bucuresti, 1992; R. David, Traite elementaire de droit compare, Paris, 1950. 
30 Cu privire la disciplina contractuala precizam ca statuarea prin Constitutie a obligatiei statului de a asigura libertatea comertului nu inseamna consacrarea dezinteresului total al acestuia asupra modului in care se desfasoara relatiile economice intr-o economie de piata. Statul, in considerarea obligatiei sale prevazute la art. 134 alin. (2) lit. a) din Constitutie, este in masura sa introduca, prin mijloacele legale ce ii stau la dispozitie, mecanisme financiare si juridice  apte sa descurajeze pe rau-platnici, evitand blocajul financiar si constituind, pe aceasta cale, un minimum de garantie pentru agentii economici corecti, fapt care corespunde interesului public ca economia nationala sa functioneze corespunzator in conditiile proprii economiei de piata.
31 Dreptul civil este dominat de doua institutii fundamentale: institutia dreptului de proprietate si institutia contractului. In acest sens a se vedea Constantin Statescu, Corneliu Barsan, Drept civil. Teoria Generala a Obligatiilor, Editura All Beck, Bucuresti, 1998, p. 21.
32 Marouf Daoulibi, La jurisprudence dans le droit islamique, Paris, 1941, p. 20 ; V.D. Zlatescu, op. cit. p. 340; Nicolae Popa, op. cit. p. 31. 
33 Cu privire la importanta profesiilor liberale pentru Uniunea Europeana a se vedea, Gianfranco Rocca, Conference on the Regulation of Professional Services, 27/10/03, "Le  secteur  tertiaire  joue  en  effet  un  role crucial  au  sein  de  notre  marché intérieur;  les  services représentent  70%  du  PIB  de  l'UE  mais  seulement  20%  des échanges entre Etats membres."
34 Cu privire la locul profesiunilor liberale, in cadrul unui anumit sistem de drept, vom arata mai departe motivele pentru care aceasta institutie are o pozitie mai speciala in cadrul unei anumite ramuri de drept.
35 Cu privire la notiunea de munca si caracteristicile acesteia a se vedea Ion Traian Stefanescu, Tratat de dreptul muncii, Volumul I, Editura Lumina Lex, Bucuresti, 2003, p. 21.
36 A se vedea in acest sens S. Ghimpu, I.T. Stefanescu, S. Beligradeanu, G. Mohanu, Dreptul muncii, Tratat, volumul 1, Editura Stiintifica si Enciclopedica, Bucuresti, 1978, p. 7-10. 
37 A se vedea si Liberal Professions Presentation International League for Competition Law, Barcelona, 3 october 2003.
38 Munca prezinta si anumite trasaturi care o apropie de o marfa. A se vedea Ion Traian Stefanescu, Tratat de Dreptul muncii, op. cit. p. 237.
39 Ion Traian Stefanescu, Tratat de dreptul muncii, op. cit., p. 235.
40 Ion Traian Stefanescu, Dreptul muncii, Editura Lumina Lex, Bucuresti, 2000, p.15.
41 A se vedea Maria Jose Bicho, DG Concurrence - Commission Européenne, Concurrence dans les professions liberales: quels avantages pur la consumateur? Journée européenne de la concurrence, Forum Telecom- Picoas, Lisboa, le 9 juin 2000, "Les criteres généraux qui sont a la base de l'action de la Commission ne sont pas différents de ceux qui sont suivis dans d'autres secteurs de l'économie: (1) l'action de la Commission porte sur les cas qui presentment une dimension communautaire; (2) les membres des professions libérales sont des entreprises lorsqu'ils exercent leur profession a titre d'indépendant; (3) les ordres professionnels sont des associations d'entreprises lorsqu'ils représentent leurs membres en tant qu'entreprises; (4) le statut particulier dont un ordre professionnel bénéficie, c'est-a-dire, le fait qu'il s'appelle, par exemple, >>corporation d'intéret public<< ou >>association d'intéret public<< n'a pas d'incidence sur l'application des regles de concurrence a ses comportements restrictifs; (5) le fait que les décisions restrictives d'un ordre professionnel soient prises sur la base d'une délégation de pouvoir attribuée par les pouvoirs publics ne les exclut pas, nécessairement, du champ d'application des regles de concurrence."
42 D. Cicur, Piata Muncii, in Economie, Editura Economica, Bucuresti, 2000, p. 284.
43 Pierre Mathijsen, Compendiu de drept European, editia a 7-a, Editura Club Europa 2002, Bucuresti, p. 223.
44 Conventiile civile de prestari de servicii (contractele de antrepriza) incheiate in baza Codului civil au un regim juridic aparte, diferit de fostul regim juridic aplicabil conventiilor civile de prestari de servicii incheiate in baza Legii nr. 130/1999. A se vedea Madalin Niculeasa, Ioana Dulca (Ioana Niculeasa), Regimul juridic (civil, fiscal) al conventiilor civile de prestari de servicii, Revista Romana de Drept al Afacerilor, nr.7-8/2003, p. 39- 46; C.L. Popescu, Contractul civil de locatiune a lucrarilor dupa intrarea in vigoare a noului Cod al muncii, Revista Romana de Drept al Muncii, nr. 2/2003, p. 21.
45 A se vedea I.T. Stefanescu, Tratat de Dreptul muncii, op. cit. p. 22 - 47. 
46 Ion Traian Stefanescu, Tratat de Dreptul muncii, op. cit. p. 47.
47 Ion Traian Stefanescu, Dreptul muncii, op. cit. p. 28.
48 Cu ocazia Zilei Europene a Concurentei (European Competition Day), care a avut ca tema problematica legata de "Legile concurentei si profesiile liberale", Directorul general al DG Concurenta al Comisiei Europene, dl Philip Lowe a prezentat, in numele Comisarului European pentru Concurenta, orientarile actuale ale Uniunii Europene in privinta reglementarii domeniului profesiilor liberale, cu un accent deosebit pe activitatea notarilor si a avocatilor, dar si cu referiri la concurenta dintre cabinetele medicale si retelele farmaceutice. Dezbaterile care au urmat au prilejuit schimburi de opinii si puncte de vedere care s-au polarizat intre partizani ai unei sporite reglementari ale acestor activitati profesionale - pentru a satisface exigentele legitime ale consumatorilor de servicii - si, pe de alta parte, aparatorii mentinerii in linii mari a unei libertati a statutului social-economic al exercitarii acestor profesii de interes public. In cadrul concluziilor formulate de catre Presedintele Consiliului Concurentei al Marelui Ducat de Luxemburg, dl. Thiery Hoscheit, a fost reliefata necesitatea pastrarii unui echilibru intre protejarea intereselor consumatorilor prin sporirea gradului de informare, pe de o parte si, pe de alta parte, necesitatea respectarii criteriilor de demnitate, confidentialitate, loialitate si delicatete a tratarii cazurilor in considerarea exercitarii profesiilor liberale, in cadrul noii Piete Unice extinse. Vorbitorul a accentuat necesitatea evaluarii si masurarii standardelor de calitate si a rezultatelor activitatii profesionale evocate, fara insa a se aduce vreo atingere criteriilor deontologice ale profesiilor liberale. Intre tendintele novatoare care au figurat pe lista de propuneri formulate in cadrul lucrarilor, s-a situat inclusiv posibilitatea/necesitatea incredintarii plangerilor consumatorilor de servicii fata de calitatea unor anumite servicii prestate unor organisme neutre, independente fata de barourile de avocati sau camerele notariale. 
49 Art. 1.1 din Statutul Uniunii Mondiale a Profesiunilor Liberale, text actualizat in data de 3 februarie 1998.
50 Prin vocea Presedintelui sau, Dl Mihai Berinde, Consiliul Concurentei a inaugurat o campanie de advocacy in favoarea politicii de clementa ce incurajeaza agentii economici care doresc sa renunte la intelegeri de tip cartel, aducand informatii si probe in legatura cu acestea. Platforma Central-Europeana CEFTAC a fost fondata prin Programul PHARE al Uniunii Europene si este coordonata de EUROLINK - Casa Europei in vederea facilitarii comunicarii si medierii din partea societatii civile intre reprezentantii mediului de afaceri romanesc si autoritatile interne si europene de reglementare in domeniul concurentei.  Potrivit acestuia "In acest context, Platforma CEFTAC a decis sa sprijine prin forte proprii, cu ajutorul unor prestigiosi experti din societatile de consultanta si avocati partenere, aceasta campanie inspirata de noile orientari ale Uniunii Europene prin acordarea de informare si consiliere gratuita tuturor firmelor asupra avantajelor reprezentate de posibilitatea denuntarii intelegerilor de tip cartel si promovarii unei concurente loiale si transparente, in spirit european. Mentionam ca aceasta politica de preventie a efectelor economice ale incalcarii regimului concurentei urmeaza a fi transpusa integral in practica in perspectiva aderarii la Uniunea Europeana, moment in care Directoratul General de Concurenta al Comisiei Europene va putea sa se auto-sesizeze direct asupra unor intelegeri ilegale in cadrul cartelurilor declarate sau mascate, existente pe piata romaneasca. Va informam ca un modul special dedicat prezentarii avantajelor si riscurilor pentru companii a aplicarii politicii de clementa va fi inclus in cadrul seriei de Seminarii Europene de Training programata sa aiba loc in cursul lunilor mai si iunie, realizate cu sprijinul Consilierilor de Pre-aderare ai Uniunii Europene in domeniul Concurentei, in orasele Constanta, Timisoara, Sibiu, Brasov. "
51 Romania a inchis capitolul 2 de negociere referitor la "Libera circulatie a persoanelor", si continua negocierile pentru capitolul 3 de negociere referitor la "Libera circulatie a serviciilor". Acquis-ul comunitar la acest capitol se refera la eliminarea discriminarilor in conditiile de intrare, studiu, deplasare, munca, angajare sau remuneratie, intre cetatenii statului membru pe teritoriul caruia acestia isi desfasoara activitatea si cetatenii celorlalte state membre care stau sau muncesc pe teritoriul acelui stat. Romania a acceptat perioada de tranzitie de 2 pana la 7 ani (2+3+2) dupa aderare, solicitata de Uniunea Europeana, rezervandu-si dreptul de a impune conditii similare pentru statele care vor solicita aceasta perioada de tranzitie si in domeniile in care acestea o vor solicita. Aceasta inseamna ca libera circulatie a fortei de munca din noul Stat Membru in spatiul Uniunii Europene va functiona conform reglementarilor nationale ale fiecarui Stat Membru. Aceasta perioada de tranzittie a fost solicitata si celorlalte state candidate care vor adera la UE in 2004 (cu exceptia Ciprului si Maltei, care au un numar redus de lucratori), insa unele state ale UE au anuntat deja ca nu le vor aplica, deoarece au nevoie de forta de munca din aceste state. Inchiderea capitolului "Libera circulatie a persoanelor" aduce cu sine o clarificare a pietei muncii din Romania, masurile necesare pentru ca profesiile romanesti sa fie recunoscute pe piata Uniunii Europene, iar romanii sa poata munci in UE dupa aderare.
52 Cu privire la restrictiile, in sens larg, existente in cadrul profesiilor liberale a se vedea Economic impact of regulation in the field of liberal professions in different Member States - A "structure" for the regulatory systems of professional services "On beginning a description of regulatory systems we first have to distinguish between regulation in the wider sense and regulations in the narrow sense. Regulations - in the wider sense of the word - include rules that are applicable to all participants in the economy. Such rules are, for example, general regulations on consumer protection or the general labour law. Such regulations are not part of our analysis. Here we concentrate on regulations in the narrow sense, which are rules that are directly, and in most cases solely, applicable to the liberal professions or professional services."
53 Din punct de vedere parlamentar, au existat doua proiecte legislative privind profesiile liberale in ansamblu; este vorba despre Proiectul nr. 259/1999, Proiect de lege privind organizarea si exercitarea profesiilor liberale, proiect retras de initiator  (Guvern) si Proiectul de lege nr. 203/1999, propunere legislativa pentru sprijinirea exercitarii unor profesii liberale, care a incetat deoarece nu s-a incadrat in prevederile art. 60 alin. 5 din Constitutia Romaniei. 
54 Societatile comerciale astfel cum sunt reglementate de Legea nr. 31/1990 constituie diferenta specifica fata de persoanele juridice astfel cum acestea sunt reglementate de Decretul-Lege nr. 31/1954. La randul lor, societatile comerciale constituie genul proxim fata de celelalte societati comerciale (bancare, de asigurari etc.). In consecinta, societatile comerciale astfel cum sunt reglementate de Legea nr. 31/1990 au o dubla natura juridica, in sensul ca sunt atat gen proxim (fata de societatile bancare si societatile de asigurari), cat si diferenta specifica fata de persoanele juridice astfel cum sunt normate de Decretul-Lege nr. 31/1954. 
55 Anne-Margrete Wachtmeister, Liberal Professions Conference, 28 october 2003, Overview of the Commission,s stocktaking exercise "For the last decade, the Commission has applied competition law to professional services on a case-by-casebasis.  Commissioner  Monti  decision,  earlier  this  year,  to  launch  a  more  wide ranging investigation for the professions reflects a growing concern regarding both the extent of regulation in this sector, and the potential impact of that regulation on the EU economy."
56 A se vedea Maria Jose Bicho, DG Concurrence - Commission Européenne, Concurrence dans les professions liberales: quels avantages pour le consumateur? Journée européenne de la concurrence, Forum Telecom-Picoas, Lisboa, le 9 juin 2000, "Il est courant que de nombreuses professions libérales ressentent également comme déontologiques des pratiques qui sont réellement restricives de concurrence et qui protegent uniquement les intérets de leurs membres. Pour cette raison, ce n'est que dans le contexte propre a chaque profession que l'on peut identifier les regles qui sont vraiment déontologiques. Les exemples les plus communs sont: les regles destinées a assurer le secret professionnel ou a Eviter les conflits d'intéret les regles qui sont nécessaires pour éviter la publicité trompeuse ou mensongare. les regles qui imposent des devoirs de compétence, d'impartialité, d'intégrité et de responsabilité. les regles qui évitent une sollicitation excessive de la clientele, par exemple, dans certaines conditions, la sollicitation active d'un client dans une affaire qui est en cours aupres d'un autre membre de la profession." 
57 Ion Traian Stefanescu, Dreptul Muncii, op. cit., p. 144.
58 In acelasi sens a se vedea, Rapport sur la concurrence dans le secteur des professions libérales, Bruxelles, le 9 Février 2004, (présentée par la Commission), "Le Conseil européen réuni a Lisbonne en mars 2000 a adopté un programme de réforme économique visant a faire de l'UE l'économie de la connaissance la plus compétitive et la plus dynamique du monde d'ici 2010. Dans ce contexte, le Conseil européen a insisté sur le role clé des services dans l'économie et sur leur importance pour la croissance et l'emploi."
59 Cu privire la avantajele reglementarii, a se vedea si Hans Gilliams,  Regulation of Professional Services, Conference organized by the European Commission - 28 October 2003".
60 Exista tari in care membrii organizatiilor profesionale isi desfasoara activitatea ca angajatori, ca salariati sau chiar ca functionari publici. De aceea apare cu necesitate regandirea independentei profesiilor liberale, independenta care sa fie cea a exercitiului si a activitatii, si nu forma de incadrare in munca. 
61 Referitor la aceasta distinctie a se vedea si Liberal Professions Presentation International League for Competition Law, Barcelona, 3 october 2003, "The distinction it draws between self-regulation delegated by the state authorities, and autonomous self-regulation, is important."
62 Bineinteles ca in cazul in care se iveste un litigiu cu privire la respectiva profesiune liberala, instantele judecatoresti sunt competente sa solutioneze acest diferend, deoarece accesul la justitie nu poate fi ingradit de nici o lege sau conventie particulara.
63 Rapport sur la concurrence dans le secteur des professions libérales, Bruxelles, le 9 Février 2004, (présentée par la Commission) "Les regles restrictives dans le secteur des professions libérales concernent notamment les restrictions relatives a l'octroi de licence, comme les conditions d'acces et les téches réservées, ainsi que les regles régissant le comportement, comme la régulation des prix, les restrictions en matiere de publicité et les regles relatives a la structure de l'entreprise."
64 Competition in Professional Services: New Light and New Challenges By Mario Monti, Commissioner for Competition European Commission For  Bundesanwaltskammer, Berlin, 21 March 2003, "Liberal  professions  can  be  generally  defined  as  occupations requiring special training in the liberal arts or sciences, for example lawyers, architects, auditors, doctors, and pharmacists. These are services  that  citizens  regularly  use,  some  more  than  others.  And just as relevant, professional services are also an important input in all areas of business. One thing all  these  professions  traditionally  have  in  common  is  a high  level  of  regulation." 
65 V.M. Ciobanu, Tratat teoretic si practic de procedura civila, Editura National, Bucuresti, 1996, Bucuresti, vol. 2,  p. 659.
66 A. Hilsenrad, D. Rizeanu, C. Zirra, Notariatul de Stat, Editura Stiintifica, Bucuresti, 1964, p. 10.
67 Code Europeen de deontologie notariale in V. I. P. - Vie professionnelle - notaires, revue du Conseil Superieur du Notariat - 1995/5 nr. 175, p. 27.
68 Luis Matias, Regulation of Professional Services, 28 October 2003 "We are concerned that the Commission will attempt to assess the compliance of professional rules with competition law on the basis of what we consider to be unreliable facts. We trust that the Commission will listen to the views expressed here today and will view the conclusions reached by the study in a more critical manner, taking into consideration other aspects rather than pure economics when analysing all professions and in particular pharmacists." 
69 Competition in Professional Services: New Light and New Challenges By Mario Monti, Commissioner for Competition European Commission For  Bundesanwaltskammer, Berlin, 21 March 2003, "The  Commission  is  currently considering how best to address these barriers. I  also  recall  briefly  that  the  Commission  has  proposed  a  new Directive on recognition of professional qualifications for regulated professions in March 2002. Obviously  the  Commission.s  policy  of  establishing  a  level  playing field in the internal market applies also to liberal professions. The Commission's established policy is to fully apply competition rules to these services, whilst recognising their specificities and the role they may play in the protection of public interest. The overall goal must  be  to  improve  welfare  for  all  users  of  professional  services: better choice and better value for money." 
70 In exercitarea profesiunilor liberale, se nasc mai multe categorii de raporturi juridice: intre persoanele care exercita profesiunile respective si uniunea (corpul) din care fac parte acestea; intre persoanele care exercita profesiunile respective si clientii lor  (de natura civila); intre uniunile (corpurile) respective ca persoane juridice si organele de stat, organizatiile neguvernamentale, organismele internationale. A se vedea Ion Traian Stefanescu, Tratat de Dreptul Muncii, op. cit. p. 31. 
71 Competition in Professional Services: New Light and New Challenges By Mario Monti, Commissioner for Competition European Commission For  Bundesanwaltskammer, Berlin, 21 March 2003, "For the Commission to have a more pro-active approach in this field, it has to base itself on facts. For  this  reason  we  commissioned  a  study  to  compare  the regulations  affecting  lawyers,  notaries,  accountants,  architects, engineers  and  pharmacists  in  all  Member  States."
72 A se vedea, in acest sens, prevederile art. 1.4-1.8 din Statutul Uniunii Mondiale a Profesiilor Liberale.
73 Liberal Professions Conference, 28 OCTOBER 2003, Overview of the Commission.s stocktaking exercise (Part II) by Niels J. Philipsen "Fixed  prices  and  recommended  prices  are  the regulatory  instruments  which  have  the  most  detrimental  effects  on  competition.  If professionals do not have any options to compete on price, then, in theory, they are only able  to  compete  on  quality.  However,  one  of  the  main  arguments  for  regulating  the professions is that many individual consumers find it difficult or impossible to assess the quality  of  professional  services." 
74 A se vedea, Proposition de Directive du Parlament Europeen et du Conseil relative aux services dans le marchŽ intŽrieur.
75 Ion Traian Stefanescu, Tratat de Dreptul Muncii, op. cit. p. 30.
76 Spiritul liberal - persoanele care exercita profesii liberale sunt inclinate sa foloseasca solutii originale in solutionarea problemelor, decat sa astepte rezolvari din partea administratiilor. Flexibilitatea - profesionistul liberal este obligat, de cele mai multe ori sa se poata adapta rapid oricaror situatii si in acelasi timp sa poata rezolva aceasta sarcina cu un minimum de efort financiar. Prudenta  - nascuta direct din constientizarea  calitatii de unic purtator al responsabilitatii propriei intreprinderi, prudenta este o componenta a profilului de client al profesionistului liberal. Prudenta, sursa potentiala a unei atitudini ezitante, se constituie, alaturi de spiritul de initiativa liberal, in celalalt pol al raportului antagonic care defineste mentalitatea profesionistului liberal din Romania. 
77 Republicata in Monitorul Oficial nr. 742 din 16 august 2005,  in temeiul art. III din Legea nr. 538/2004 privind modificarea si completarea Legii concurentei nr. 21/1996, publicata in Monitorul Oficial al Romaniei, Partea I, nr. 1.130 din 30 noiembrie 2004, dandu-se textelor o noua numerotare. 
78 A se vedea, Speaking Notes: Phil Evans, Consumers Association CONFERENCE REGULATION OF PROFESSIONAL SERVICES 28 October 2003, "There are two key elements to our approach of dealing with professional regulation in the UK (...)  1. Professionals are in a market. If you provide a service or product for money you are in a market. This is true even if you think you are somehow beyond or above a market. Once that transaction is a market transaction then the operation of the market takes hold.  2. Markets generally deliver for consumers: effective competition is the optimal policy for driving productivity and efficiency and ensuring consumers do not get ripped off. 3. Competition policy is a subset of consumer protection policy. They are not separable. Consumer protection policy builds the base from which efficient markets work. 5. Regulation depends on your starting point: professional self-regulation starts as self interested protection. It then adapts that self interest to the needs of its consumers. This can work in some areas  but tends to fail under the weight of its internal contradictions. Competition between professionals is the first step in delivering benefits to consumers. (...) "
79 Publicata in Monitorul Oficial nr. 593 din 1 iulie 2004.
80 In acelasi sens a se vedea si Economic impact of regulation in the field of liberal professions in different Member States. 
81 In conformitate cu Economic impact of regulation in the field of liberal professions in different Member States -Regulation of professional services - Theory and Publications "The 'self' in self-regulation is not used in the literal sense, but connotes some degree of collective restriction, other than constraints emanating from the government or state, to effect outcomes that would not be obtained by individual market behaviour alone. Although some aspects of self-regulation have their origins in spontaneous ordering from within a profession, more often it may be regarded as a deliberate delegation of the state's law-making powers to an agency, whose membership is composed of representatives of the profession themselves. Such arrangements are particularly in evidence in EU member states among lawyers', notaries', statutory auditors, and pharmacists' professions."
82 Publicata in Revista Romana de Drept Comunitar, nr. 3/2004, cu nota de Tiberiu Savu.
83 Potrivit Economic impact of regulation in the field of liberal professions in different Member States -  Answers to the question "Why regulate professional services?" "The starting point for the pro-regulation theories is the listing of those characteristics that apply to the markets for professional services, and which differentiate these markets from the economist's ideal conception of perfect competition. In the equilibrium predicted under unrestricted competition the welfare of producers (producer surplus) can not be increased without a detriment to consumer surplus, or vice-versa."
84 A se vedea in acest sens si Economic impact of regulation in the field of liberal professions in different Member States - Answers to the question "Why is there too much regulation of professional services?" "The theoretical arguments rehearsed in the previous section have the disadvantage of not providing a means to compute whether particular instruments of regulation would lead to a net gain in welfare, for producers and consumers, over the claimed loss in welfare, also known as market failure. Hence it is quite possible that the practices adopted by selfregulating professions result in regulatory failure - not regulatory failure in the technical sense of non-compliance with regulations, but in the economic sense of decreasing welfare by more than would be necessary to obtain otherwise acceptable market outcomes. Indeed theoretical private interest approaches postulate that professional bodies will advance their (members') interests beyond the minimum level required to the detriment of consumers - i.e.
ent-seeking behaviour will occur."
85  A se vedea in acest sens si Economic impact of regulation in the field of liberal professions in different Member States - Answers to the question "Why is there too much regulation of professional services?" "The theoretical arguments rehearsed in the previous section have the disadvantage of not providing a means to compute whether particular instruments of regulation would lead to a net gain in welfare, for producers and consumers, over the claimed loss in welfare, also known as market failure. Hence it is quite possible that the practices adopted by selfregulating professions result in regulatory failure - not regulatory failure in the technical sense of non-compliance with regulations, but in the economic sense of decreasing welfare by more than would be necessary to obtain otherwise acceptable market outcomes. Indeed theoretical private interest approaches postulate that professional bodies will advance their (members') interests beyond the minimum level required to the detriment of consumers - i.e. rent-seeking behaviour will occur." 
86  Cu privire la restrictiile, in sens larg, existente in cadrul profesiilor liberale a se vedea Economic impact of regulation in the field of liberal professions in different Member States  - A "structure" for the regulatory systems of professional services "On beginning a description of regulatory systems we first have to distinguish between regulation in the wider sense and regulations in the narrow sense. Regulations - in the wider sense of the word - include rules that are applicable to all participants in the economy. Such rules are, for example, general regulations on consumer protection or the general labour law. Such regulations are not part of our analysis. Here we concentrate on regulations in the narrow sense, which are rules that are directly, and in most cases solely, applicable to the liberal professions or professional services."
87 Cu privire la organizarea profesiei de avocat in Danemarca a se vedea si Regulation of Professional Services - IHS  - Legal professions in Denmark: an overview".
88 Cu privire la exercitarea profesiei de avocat in Italia a se vedea Regulation of Professional Services - IHS, Legal professions in Italy: an overview". 
89 Profesia de avocat in Marea Britanie - a se vedea Regulation of Professional Services - I H S  - Legal professions in England & Wales: an overview".
90 Cu privire la organizarea profesiilor legale in Germania a se vedea si Regulation of Professional Services -  I H S - Legal professions in Germany". 
91 In acelasi sens a se vedea Competition conference, Brussels, 28 October, 2003, Professional rules and business development "The Services Directive allows a lawyer from one Member State to provide temporary services freely in another Member State. As part  of the Mutual Recognition of Diplomas Directive, a lawyer can acquire  the  title  of  lawyer  in another Member State through either an aptitude test or a period of adaptation. The legal profession actively promoted the two sectoral Directives which apply to it. We have also established the CCBE Code of Conduct  which covers  all  cross-border work  of  lawyers in Europe. Is there any other regulated profession that has achieved the same level of liberalisation? At the national level, lawyers compete fiercely with each other. For individual client work, there is in every Member State plenty of consumer choice in relation to access to a lawyer. And corporate clients do not suffer from the over-concentration of work in just a handful of immensely powerful  global players, as happens in some other professional sectors."
92 Profesia de avocat in Franta  - a se vedea Regulation of Professional Services - I H S - Legal professions in France: an overview". 
93 A se vedea Maria Jose Bicho, DG Concurrence - Commission EuropŽenne, Concurrence dans les professions liberales: quels avantages pur la consumateur? Journe europenne de la concurrence, Forum Telecom-Picoas, Lisboa, le 9 juin 2000. 
94 Pentru o privire generala asupra profesiilor liberale, din perspectiva dreptului concurentei a se vedea, Nicoleta Crisan, Legea concurentei si profesiile liberale, Revista Concurentia nr. 3/2005 (coordonata de Consiliul Concurentei). 
95 Anne-Margrete Wachtmeister, Liberal Professions Conference, 28 october 2003, Overview of the Commission's stocktaking exercise , "On  the  other  side  of  the  spectrum,  Ireland,  the  UK,  the  Netherlands  and  the  Nordic  countries have significantly lower degrees of regulation. In many cases, these countries have dismantled restrictive rules such as price fixing and advertising prohibitions in favour of a pro-competitive regulatory approach. Even these countries, however, maintain some restrictive professional rules." 
96 In "Comunicatul asupra concurentei in sectorul profesiilor libere", dat publicitatii la 5 septembrie 2005, Comisia Europeana,  prin Neelie Kroes, comisarul pe probleme de concurenta a declarat: "Statele Membre ale Uniunii Europene s-au angajat, in cadrul Consiliului European din martie 2005 sa reformeze structura lor economica in cadrul relansarii Agendei de la Lisabona. In prezent acestea trebuie sa transpuna acest angajament politic in actiuni concrete si sa rezolve restrictiile reglementarilor anticoncurentiale din acest domeniu, oferind acestei reforme un sprijin politic intern viguros. Serviciile oferite de profesiile libere reprezinta un sector-cheie al economiei Uniunii Europene. Eliminarea restrictiilor anticoncurentiale din acest domeniu va stimula concurenta, permitand realizarea unui raport calitate/pret imbunatatit, servicii de o calitate sporita si mai multe optiuni pentru consumatori si agenti economici". 
97 A se vedea Maria Jose Bicho, DG Concurrence - Commission Europenne, Concurrence dans les professions liberales: quels avantages pour le consumateur? Journe europenne de la concurrence, Forum Telecom-Picoas, Lisboa, le 9 juin 2000.  
98 A se vedea in acest sens si Economic impact of regulation in the field of liberal professions in different Member States - Answers to the question "Why is there too much regulation of professional services?"  
99 A se vedea si Rapport sur la concurrence dans le secteur des professions libérales, Bruxelles, le 9 Février 2004, (présentée par la Commission). 
100 Sir David Clementi este reprezentantul curentului initiat de Comisarul Mario Monti. Prin raportul sau Review of the regulatory framework for legal services in England and Wales, report Sir David Clementi, december 2004,  Sir David Clementi sustine ca "This Review follows closely the order of the issues raised in the Consultation Paper that I published in March 2004. That paper raised a number of questions, and behind it lay three particular concerns: i) a concern about the current regulatory framework In its report published in July 2003 entitled 'Competition and regulation in the legal services market' the Department for Constitutional Affairs concluded that the current regulatory framework was "outdated, inflexible, over-complex and insufficiently accountable or transparent".
101 Cu privire la restrictiile, in sens larg, existente in cadrul profesiilor liberale a se vedea Economic impact of regulation in the field of liberal professions in different Member States  - A "structure" for the regulatory systems of professional services. 
102 Potrivit Department for Constitutional Affairs and Lord Chancellor, The Lord Falconer of Thoroton, "The Government warmly welcomes Sir David Clementi's report on the future regulation of legal services in England and Wales. Sir David and his team deserve our thanks for all their work over the past eighteen months. I established Sir David's review to consider the regulation of legal services with the clear objective of improving the service to the consumer. The provision of legal services must include safeguarding the public's right to independent legal advice, and ensuring the quality and professionalism of the legal professions. Reform will be judged by the benefits it delivers for the consumer.  People expect value for money and services that are delivered in ways which better suit their needs. They also expect proper redress if something goes wrong as a result of poor service. The legal professions are no exception." 
103 Promotorii discutiilor cu privire la profesiile liberale prin prisma concurentei si drepturilor consumatorilor a fost Comisarul Mario Monti, iar apoi, la scara nationala, pentru Marea Britanie,  Sir. David Clementi. Potrivit Response to Sir David Clementi's Consultation Paper on the Review of the Regulatory Framework for Legal Services in England and Wales" Lawyers have a distinct set of obligations and a distinct context of working, which requires a distinct form of regulation. "
104 Rapport sur la concurrence dans le secteur des professions libérales, Bruxelles, le 9 Février 2004, (présentée par la Commission), "La communication récente de la Commission sur la compétitivité des services liés aux entreprises et leur contribution a la performance des entreprises européennes met en lumiere le role de ces services, en particulier ceux qui font appel a un niveau élevé de connaissances, pour la réalisation des objectifs de Lisbonne en matiere de croissance, d'emploi et de compétitivité de l'économie européenne. Les mesures proposées dans cette communication comprennent la promotion de l'apprentissage tout au long de la vie et la mise a jour des connaissances, l'intégration de l'informatique et de la télématique dans l'activité des entreprises afin d'améliorer la productivité et la qualité des services, ainsi que la définition de normes volontaires pour la fourniture des services transfrontaliers. Les professions libérales sont appelées a jouer un role important dans l'amélioration de la compétitivité de l'économie européenne." 
105 In acest sens a se vedea si Speaking Note by Jim Murray, Director of BEUC the European Consumers Organisation, Conference on Competition and the Liberal Professions,  
106 Cu privire la restrictiile aflate in domeniul profesiilor liberale, a se vedea, John Fingleton, Chairman, Irish Competition Authority, 28 Octobre 2003 Bruxelles. Potrivit acestuia, in Irlanda exista urmatoarele restrictii: "Restrictions a l'entrée, Restrictions de comportement, Restrictions structurelles. " 
107 Cu privire la modul in care organizatiile profesionale ale diferitelor profesii liberale inteleg raportul dintre profesiile liberale si concurenta (consumatori) a se vedea Invitation to comment Regulation in Liberal Professions and its effects, Summary of responses, http://europa.eu.int/comm/competition/general_info/consultation.html
108 Potrivit Requete a L'OMC, A la veille de l'ouverture, a Seattle, du nouveau cycle de négociations sur le commerce mondial, l'Union Mondiale des Professions Libérales, réunie en Conseil Exécutif le 15 octobre 1999, appelle avec insistance l'attention de l'Organisation Mondiale du Commerce sur les points suivants: "Les professions libérales représentent, dans le groupe du commerce des services, un secteur particulier et >>différent<<. Elles n'appartiennent pas aux services >>marchands<<. Elles sont dotées d'un statut légal contraignant, soumises a une déontologie et a une discipline autonomes, totalement étrangeres au principe de libre concurrence et parfois meme en contradiction avec lui. Cette spécificité, partout dans le monde, est justifiée par le caractere d'ordre public de leur activité (santé, justice, protection du patrimoine, protection de l'environnement). Elle aurait de conduire a placer le secteur des professions libérales sous le régime des >>exceptions générales<< prévu par l'article XIV de l
Accord Général sur le Commerce des Services, et plus particulierement de ses paragraphes a, b et c. Ce traitement particulier n'ayant pas été appliqué, nous avons considéré comme une bonne orientation la dichotomie entre >>professional services<< et >>business services<<." 
109 Rapport sur la concurrence dans le secteur des professions libérales, Bruxelles, le 9 Février 2004, (présentée par la Commission), "Les points suivants envisagent chacune des cinq grandes catégories de restrictions dans le domaine des professions libérales dans l'UE: (i) les prix imposés, (ii) les prix recommandés, (iii) les regles en matiere de publicité, (iv) les conditions d'acces et les droits réservés, et (v) les réglementations régissant la structure des entreprises et les pratiques multidisciplinaires. Chaque point présente brievement les arguments en faveur et a l'encontre de la catégorie de restrictions concernée et contient des indications quant a la possibilité d'assouplir éventuellement les regles existantes."

Data aparitiei: 28 Martie 2007
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